REST APIs everywhere!
In general, web services have been in existence for just as long as the HTTP protocol has existed. But, since the beginning of cloud computing, they have become the ubiquitous method of enabling client interaction with services and data.
As a developer, I have been lucky enough to work with some SOAP services that are still around @ work. But, I’ve largely played with REST, which is a resource-based architectural style for developing APIs and web services.
For a great chunk of my career, I have been involved in projects either building, designing, and using APIs.
Most of the APIs I have seen “claimed” to be “RESTful” — meaning compliant with the principles and constraints of REST architecture.
Yet, there are a few handful I have worked with that give REST a very, very bad rep.
Inaccurate usage of HTTP status codes, plain text responses, inconsistent schemas, verbs in endpoints… I feel like I’ve seen it all (or at least, a good chunk).
So, I decided to write up a piece describing what I personally think are some best practices when it comes to designing REST APIs.
Just so we’re clear…
I do not claim to be the authority, or mean to infer that the following practices are 100% in sync with any “holy REST principles” (if there even is such a thing in existence). I have pieced these thoughts from my own experiences building, and working with different APIs throughout my career.
Also, I do not pretend to have mastered REST API design, either! I believe it is an art/sport — the more you practice, the better you get.
I will list out some code snippets as “examples of bad design”. If they look like something you would write, that’s fine! 🙂 The only thing that matters is that we learn together.
Here are some tips, advice, and guidance to designing great REST APIs that will make your consumers (and developers) happy.
1. Learn the basics of HTTP
If you aspire to build a well-designed REST API, you must know the basics of the HTTP protocol. I firmly believe this will help you make good design choices.
I find the Overview of HTTP on the Mozilla Developer Network docs to be a pretty comprehensive reference for this topic.
Although, as far as REST API design is concerned, here is a TLDR of HTTP applied to RESTful Design:
- HTTP has verbs (actions or methods): GET, POST, PUT, PATCH and DELETE are most common.
- REST is resource-oriented and a resource is represented by an URI:
- An endpoint is the combination of a verb and an URI, example:
- An endpoint can be interpreted as an action performed on a resource. Example:
POST: /books/may mean "Create a new book".
- At a high-level, verbs map to CRUD operations:
- A response’s status is specified by its status code:
4xxfor client errors and
5xxfor server errors
Of course you can use other things the HTTP protocol offers for REST API design, but these are the basic things I believe you must keep in mind.
2. Do not return plain text
Although this is not imposed or mandated by any REST architectural style, most REST APIs by convention use JSON as the data format.
However, it is not good enough to just return a response body containing a JSON-formatted String. You should still specify the
Content-Type header. It must be set to the value
This is especially important when dealing with application/programmatic clients (example, another service/API interacting with your API via the
requests library in Python) — some of them rely on this header to accurately decode the response.
💡Pro-Tip: You can verify a reponse’s
Content-Type pretty easily with Firefox. It has built-in pretty-display for responses with
Content-Type: application/json. 🔥
In Firefox, “Content-Type: text/plain” looks… plain.
“Content-Type: application/json” Nice, how pretty and functional this is.🕺
3. Do not use verbs in URIs
By now if you’ve understood the basics, you’ll start to realize that it is not RESTful to put verbs in the URI.
This is because the HTTP verbs should be sufficient to accurately describe the action being performed on the resource.
Example: Let’s say that you are providing an endpoint to generate and retrieve a book cover for a book. I will note
:param a placeholder for an URI parameter (like an ID or a slug). Your first idea might be to create a similar endpoint to this one:
GET method is syntactically sufficient here to say that we are retrieving ("GETting") a book’s cover. So, let's just use:
Likewise, for an endpoint that creates a new book:
# Don’t do this
POST: /books/createNewBook/# Do this
HTTP verbs (verbalizses) all the things!
4. Use plural nouns for resources
This may be hard to determine, whether or not you should use plural or singular form for resource nouns.
Should we use
/book/:id/ (singular) or
My personal advice is to use the plural form.
Why? Because it fits all types of endpoints very well.
I can see that
GET /book/2/ is fine. But what about
GET /book/? Are we GETting the one and only book in the library, couple of them, or all of them?
To prevent this kind of ambiguity, let’s be consistent (💡Software career advice!) and use plural everywhere:
5. Return the error details in the response body
When an API server handles an error, it is convenient (*and recommended*) to return error details within the JSON body to help consumers with debugging. Even better if you include which fields were affected by the error!
"error": "Invalid payload.",
"name": "This field is required."
6. Pay special attention to HTTP status codes
I feel this one is pretty important. If there is one thing you need to remember from this article, this is probably it.
The worst thing your API could do is return an error response with a
200 OKstatus code.
It’s simply bad semantics. Instead, return a meaningful HTTP status code that accurately describes the type of error.
Still, you’re probably wondering, “But I’m sending error details in the response body as you recommended, so what’s wrong with that?”
Let me tell you a story. 🙂
I once had to integrate an API that returned
200 OK for every response and indicated whether the request had succeeded via a
Despite the HTTP status code was returning
200 OK, I could not be absolutely sure it that it didn’t fail to process my request.
In fact, the API could return responses like so:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
"error": "Expected at least three items in the list."
(Yes — it also returned HTML content. Because, why not?)
As a result, I had to check the status code AND the ad-hoc
status field to make absolutely sure that everything was fine before I would read the
SOOO ANNOYING! 🤦♂️
This kind of design is a real no-no, because it breaks the trust between the API and their consumers. You come to fear that the API could be lying to you.
All of this is tremendously un-RESTful. What should you do instead?
Make use of the HTTP status code, and only use the response body to provide error details.
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
"error": "Expected at least three items in the list."
7. You should use HTTP status codes consistently
Once you’ve mastered HTTP status codes, you should aim to use them consistently.
For example, if you choose that a
POST endpoint returns a
201 Created somewhere, use that same HTTP status code for every
Why? Because consumers should not have to worry about which method on which endpoint will return which status code in which circumstances.
So, be predictable (consistent). If you have to stray away from conventions, document it somewhere with big signs.
Typically, I stick to the following pattern:
GET: 200 OK
PUT: 200 OK
POST: 201 Created
PATCH: 200 OK
DELETE: 204 No Content
8. Do not nest resources
You are probably noticing by now that REST APIs deal with resources. Retrieving a list, or a single instance of a resource is straightforward. But, what happens when you deal with related resources?
For example, let’s say we want to retrieve the list of books for a particular author — the one with
name=Cagan. There are basically two options.
The first option would be to nest the
books resource under the
authors resource, example:
Some architects recommend this convention because it does indeed represent the one-to-many relationship between an author and their books.
But, it is not clear anymore what type of resource you are requesting. Is it authors? Is it books? …
Also flat is better than nested, so there must be a better way… And there is! :)
My personal recommendation is to use query string parameters to filter the
books resource directly:
And this clearly means: “Get all books for author name Cagan”, right? 🙂
9. Handle trailing slashes gracefully
Whether or not URIs should have a trailing slashes
/ is not really a debate. You should simply choose one way or the other (i.e. with or without the trailing slash), stick to it and gracefully redirect clients if they use the wrong convention.
(I will admit, I have been guilty of this one myself more than once. 🙈 )
Story time! 📙 One day, as I was integrating a REST API into one of my projects, and I kept receiving
HTTP 500 Internal Error on every single call. The endpoint I was using looked something like this:
I was fuming and for the life of me couldn’t figure out what the hell I was doing wrong. 🤪
In the end, it turned out that the server was failing because I was missing a trailing slash! So, I began using:
Aaaand everything went fine afterwards. 🤦♂️
The API wasn’t fixed, but hopefully you can prevent this type of issue for your consumers.
💡Pro-Tip: Most web-based frameworks (Angular, React, etc.) have an option to gracefully redirect to the trailed or untrailed version of the URL. Find that option and activate it as early as possible.
10. Make use of the querystring for filtering and pagination
Majority of the times, a simple endpoint is not enough to satisfy various complex business cases.
Your consumers may want to retrieve items that fulfill a specific condition, or retrieve them in small amounts at a time to improve performance.
This is exactly what filtering and pagination are made for.
With filtering, consumers can specify parameters (or properties) that the returned items should have.
Pagination allows consumers to retrieve fractions of the set of data. The simplest kind of pagination is page number pagination, which is determined by a
page and a
Now, the question is: How do you incorporate such features in a REST API?
My answer is: Use the querystring.
I would say it’s quite obvious why you should use the querystring for pagination. It would look like this:
But, it may be less obvious for filtering. At first, you might think of doing something like this to retrieve a list of only published books:
published is not a resource! Instead, it is a trait of the data you are retrieving. That kind of thing should go in the querystring.
So in the end, a user could retrieve “the second page of published books containing 20 items” like this:
Beautifully explicit, isn’t it?
11. Know the difference between
401 Unauthorized and
If I had a quarter for every single time I have seen developers and even some experienced architects mess this up…
When handling security errors in a REST API, it is extremely easy to get confused about whether the error relates to Authentication or Authorization (a.k.a. permissions) — used to happen to me all of the time.
This is my cheat sheet for knowing what I am dealing with, depending on the situation:
- Has the consumer not provided authentication credentials? Was their SSO Token invalid/timed out? 👉
- Was the consumer correctly authenticated, but they don’t have the required permissions/proper clearance to access the resource? 👉
12. Make good use of HTTP
202 Accepted to be a very handy alternative to
201 Created. It basically means:
I, the server, have understood your request. I have not created the resource (yet), but that is fine.
There are two main scenarios which I find
202 Accepted to be especially suitable:
- If the resource will be created as a result of future processing — example: After a job/process has finished.
- If the resource already existed in some way, but this should not be interpreted as an error.
13. Use a web framework specialized in REST APIs
As a last best practice, let’s discuss this question: How do you actually implement best practices in your API?
Most of the time, you want to create a quick API so that a few services can interact with one another.
The issue with this approach is that generally, the framework is not targeted at building REST API servers.
For example, both Flask and Express are two very versatile frameworks, but they were not specifically made to help you build REST APIs.
As a result, you have to take extra steps to implement best practices in your API. And most of the times, laziness or a lack of time mean you will not make the effort — and leave your consumers with a quirky API.
The solution is simple: Use the right tool for the job.
New frameworks have emerged in various languages that are specifically made to build REST APIs. They help you follow best practices hassle-free without sacrificing productivity.
In Python, one of the best API framework I’ve found is Falcon. It’s just as simple to use as Flask, nicely fast and perfect for building REST APIs within minutes.
Falcon: Unburdening APIs for over 0.0564 centuries.
If you’re more of a Django type of person, the go-to is the Django REST Framework. It’s not as intuitive, but incredibly powerful.
In Node, Restify seems to be a good candidate as well, although I haven’t gotten around to trying it yet.
I strongly recommend you give these frameworks a shot. They will help you build beautiful, elegant and well-designed REST APIs.
We should all strive to make APIs a pleasure to use. Both, for consumers and our own fellow developers.
I hope this article helped you learn some tips, and inspired techniques to build better REST APIs. To me, it just boils down to good semantics, simplicity, and common sense.
REST API design is an art, more than anything else.
If you have a different approach to any of the tips I have shared above, please share. I would love to hear about it.
In the meantime, keep ’em APIs coming! 💻